Monday, May 25, 2020

Pathways of Taxi Hand Signs: Susan Woolf

Susan Woolf, Pathways of Taxi Hand Signs,

Susan Woolf, Pathways of Taxi Hand Signs, ink, glue, pencil and water-color on handmade Rooibos teabag paper, 2019
         The Future We Choose, glue, pastel, and ink on water-color paper, 2020.

TLC Extension  Collection (May 2020, South Africa)


Overview:  "Pathways of Taxi Hand Sign" presents intricate drawings of South African mini-bus/taxi hands signs, suspended over three background fields of black, white and orange.  In the more monochromatic " The Future We Choose", a water faucet, with a jury rigged nailed employed as a handle, is located above another amalgamation of hands forming deaf hand signs.


Susan Woolf. The Future We Choose,
Artist's Statement:  Lockdown has provided a lens and an opportunity to change and take action to address climate issues urgently.

Through her artwork Susan Woolf expresses aspects of the lockdown with regards to water scarcity. The focus is on desperately poor communities in South Africa and the frenzy around shared access to water and where social distancing is difficult. The artwork shows a recreated broken tap with a nail and wire replacing the missing tap handle. It symbolises both the inventiveness and desperation to access water.

Selected taxi hand signs - an innovation that grew also out of a desperate need, in this case for transport - are included amongst the other hand gestures. These gestures draw attention to relevant social situations, which align to lockdown. Problems with social distancing echo the situation of gathering around a communal tap to access water. This extends to the taxi industry which exacerbates the problem of infecting others.

A bat semi hidden, in the artwork, is shaped by gestures. The spread of diseases like Covid 19 are almost always because people have encroached into the territory of animals. Out of 1400 species of bats, it is believed that one bat may pass Covid 19 to humans through an ‘intermediate’ host known as the Pangolin.

Pamela Allara:  In 2004, artist Susan Woolf, who was intrigued by the hand-gestures she saw commuters using to signal to the independent mini-bus ‘taxi’ drivers that they wanted a ride to a given location, began to catalogue them. This process involved her going to the numerous taxi ranks around Johannesburg and surrounding cities and townships, and questioning the commuters and drivers, not only about the sign itself, but what other meanings it may have beyond simply indicating location. As Dr. Molefe Tsele wrote in the forward to Woolf’s “Taxi Hand Signs” booklet (2007): “South Africa has eleven official languages, but in reality, there are twelve. The twelfth is a sign language … the language of commuters.” Woolf’s painstaking research resulted in her 2014 doctoral dissertation, “Taxi hand signs: Symbolic landscapes of public culture,” (Wits University), in which the signs were catalogued and interpreted. She has also created an extensive body of taxi hand sign-related artwork that has been exhibited at the South African Jewish Museum in Cape Town (2016) and elsewhere.

Susan Woolf, Pathways of Taxi Hand Signs (detail)


The two artworks Woolf has donated to The Lockdown Collection’s second phase continue her exploration of the expressive potential of hand gestures. Hand gestures are used ubiquitously in daily communication, but the same gestures can have very different meanings in different cultures, potentially resulting in miscommunication. We may want to attach significance to the many gestures found in these two beautiful works, but have to concede that we may well misinterpret what we see. Fortunately, the artist has provided a list explaining the gestures, which is appended to this post.





In Pathways of Taxi Hand Signs, the hands are randomly but tightly clustered around a central area, in light orange, while above and to the left, black and white areas are left blank.  This might suggest the frantic nature of rush hour, when taxis are headed in numerous different directions, as well as the crowding in the taxis themselves (the more people the driver jams into his vehicle, the more money he earns.) This clustering of hands suggests stress, (despite what the individual gestures may mean), and further may allude to the inability of the hands/bodies to distance safely. Despite the fact that reduced taxi commutes have resulted in fewer accidents and lower pollution, the forced proximity inside the vehicles continues to risk the spreading of disease. The city of Boston, from where I am writing, has begun discussing plans for increasing pedestrian and bicycle lanes and reducing automobile lanes on streets after the lockdown ends.  The crowding of public transport remains an intractable problem, however.

The title of the second work, The Future We Choose, is taken from the book by Christina Figueres and Tom Rivett-Carnac that traces the fatal impact of the use of fossil fuels not only in pollution and natural disasters, but the spread of disease. With the outbreak of the global pandemic, the connection between climate change and disease has become clear. Central to human health is access to clean water, but in South Africa still today, it is often a scarce commodity in townships and rural areas. The improvised repair to the small water tap is indicative of the daily challenge of finding sufficient water to drink, cook and clean endured by the poor, and a metaphor for the fragility of the water transmission system in the country. The hands floating on the dark ground below the tap appear reduced to futile gestures. But are they also forming a community that can potentially work for change? For example, the hand next to the tap with pinky and index finger extended is making the well-known ‘clever’ sign, but it also refers to horns, which as Woolf comments represents for her human interference in nature causing disease and climate change. The gesture in the lower center of a left hand grasping the wrist of a right hand closed in a fist is the sign to Pollsmoor Prison, where COVID-19 has spread rapidly. But the hands directly beneath the top on the far right form a protective gesture, as individuals come together to help each other. In the end, hidden in this bleak image may be hope for positive change in a time when the pandemic exacerbates the access to life-sustaining water. Such change will clearly require all hands on deck.



From Susan Woolf: Meanings of gesture and taxi hand signs in The Future We Choose:

  1.  Hands cupped to drink water or ask for food.
  2. In this taxi hand sign (THS) the bottom hand moves back and forth to indicate going to a place underground. Under a bridge, for example.
  3. Having little money or resources, it’s called ‘Petrol Money’ by taxi drivers. The commuter needs a lift but has little money.
  4. Represents the plight of animals (To Grahamstown, horns in taxi lingo). Refers in the artwork to human interference with animals/nature causing diseases like corona virus and resulting in climate change worldwide. Also known as The Clever Sign silent language in Soweto that has 149 meanings.
  5. Many taps in townships are broken or have parts stolen. Innovative residents desperate for water, reinvent found objects to   make taps/toilets/objects functional.
  6. Protective hands. Individuals take extraordinary measures to help others. Close to me are two determined initiatives. Artists Proof has already raised and distributed 2 million Rands and All About Food, through the Angel Network have personally delivered close to 700000 meals to Orange Farm residents.
  7. Hands cupped to catch desperately needed water.
  8. Gestures combine to create a bat. One (out of 1400) species of bats are known to spread the virus to humans probably through an intermediary. Human interference is a problem.
  9. The cupped fingers sign to Orange Farm (palm up), form an absent’ Orange (or food and water). The same sign (palm down) is   used to hail a taxi to the Mall (Fingers being the various shops). Most shops are still banned during Lockdown Extension 4 in SA.                        
  10. This THS is to Pollsmoor Prison. Corvid 19’s rapid spread in S.A prisons resulted in riots and the release of 19000 prisoners.
  11. The taxi sign to Kliptown says ‘slow down it stinks’ referring to the social situation whereby massive amounts of garbage has not been removed. In SA during lockdown some townships have not had a garbage removal service.
  12. Begging hands.
  13.  13 and 14. Number 13 Taxi hand sign points backwards (Bree Metro Mall to Meodowlands). The ‘Short Left’ taxi sign points forward (This THS shows where the commuter wants to alight).    Will isolation during Lockdown encourage people to think of others and make changes needed for the future. Which way will we choose?
  14. This taxi hand sign is ‘Short Left’ where the passenger indicates where he wants to get off. Taxi sign (number 13 and 14 together beg this question - Will isolation during Lockdown encourage people to rethink the future and make changes needed going forward? Will we slip backwards into the same way of behaviour before Covid 19? What future will we choose?
  15. This Taxi hand sign is to Marabastad. A respected taxi operator was murdered there. The bottom hand moves back and forward and shows a life cut short. Covid 19 continues to ‘cut short’ many lives. It has also affacted many livelihoods and the subsequent dearth of economies in countries worldwide.
  16. This is a gesture where two hands overlap and are held against the chest. They express deeply felt emotions on the crisis and consequences of Covid and Lockdown.


Mark Auslander:   As emphasized by other artists in the TLC project, including Walter Oltmann and Michael Meyersfeld, hands, always meaningful in all human societies, have taken on a powerful new range of connotations during the pandemic crisis. Our hands are potential sites of contagion and infection, and we are enjoined to scrutinize our own hand movements (avoiding, above all, touching the face and shaking hands), washing our hands with soap and water, when available, and sanitizing and wearing gloves when possible.  At the same time, hands remain ever more precious instruments of care and compassion, offering succor to the ill and dying.

Hands signify our common humanity, but also, in Susan Woolf's renditions, function as a poignant reminder of all that divides us. The luxury enjoyed by elite and middle class persons, who can afford to cloiser themselves away in relative isolation during Lockdown, simply is not available to lower income communities, especially in the townships. Social distance is impossible, and access to clean water is highly restricted. Woolf's hands are in intimate proximity to another,  They are, especially in The Future we Choose, intensely beautiful, redolent of the marvelous cultural improvisational creativity of township life, in which a complex semiosis has been experimentally generated across the years.

Although this intricate system of taxi hand gestures emerged long before the Lockdown of early 2020, it is worth bearing in mind that they were developed under a long history of Apartheid, a vast system of formal and informal lockdowns, in which the mobility of persons of color was highly restricted through pass systems, arbitrary arrests and detentions, and labor preference areas that tore millions apart from their loved ones. Operating across more than a dozen languages, with only a few moments to communicate a desired destination, this ingenious gestural system evolved to evade an intricate and often violent system of state control. In this respect, it bears some resemblance to the gestural system created by political prisoners under Apartheid, celebrated in Jeremy Cronin's poem, "Motho Ke Motho Ka Batho Babang (A Person is a Person Because of Other People)":  "Two fingers are extended in a vee/ And wiggle like two antennae./(He's being watched). " Under the most brutal conditions of confinement, Cronin long ago reminded us, extraordinary moments of solidarity were possible, against all odds, without spoken language.  So too for the taxi hand semiotic system Woolf has documented and explored in academic and artistic registers-- a system which, under the current Lockdown, remains only a body memory, a cultural matrix in suspended animation.

There are so many ways, Woolf's work reminds us, in which everyday life among the South African poor remains a dynamic collective aesthetic project that is worthy of celebration. Yet at the same time, these hands, forced so closely together, are shown as painfully vulnerable, potential agents of contagion and infection, deprived even of the access to clean water that should be a universal human right. The hidden image of the bat, formed by the hands, reminds of of the environmental costs of unregulated human expansion into natural regions, costs disproportionately born by the world's poor.

As Pam notes, in the midst of all this terror and tragedy, the hand signs for friendship and love endure. As we ponder the next steps in human history, love may not be all we need, but love is surely foundational to whatever comes next, if we are to forge a better world, near and far.



For more information:
#TLCExtensionCollection #ArtForGood #TheLockdownCollection














23 comments:

  1. Susan Woolf's works are compelling as artworks alone - her mediums, her creations and constructions.

    What makes them extraordinary, to me, is the literal depth to them. The more one explores the images within the artworks, the more one finds the real life stories that sharpen and give insight to both bird's eye view and intricate detail of human movement in South African life.

    With just a glance, the viewer has the chance to uncover an entire body of knowledge and human experience that, until Woolf, had never been explored, verified or documented. Woolf invites the viewer into that exploration with her, to widen one's eyes at the greatness and the tragedy, the matter-of-fact and the meaningfulness.

    Gazing at her work is like feasting on a thousand TED talks... and whoever owns her works have an eye for art, a delight in stories, and the satisfaction of ownership that comes with the purchase of an extraordinary mark of the times.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hello to everyone out here, I am here to share the unexpected miracle that happened to me … My name is Susan Christian , I live in London, UK. we got married for more than 9 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do, i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted Dr Emu for the return of my husband to me, they told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then they told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, they casted the spell and after 24 hours my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still live me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that he Dr Emu casted on him that make him come back to me today, me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Dr Emu for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact Dr Emu ,if you need his help you can contact him through his private mail: emutemple@gmail.com or you can contact him through his website https://emutemple.wordpress.com/ fb page Https://web.facebook.com/Emu-Temple-104891335203341 and you will see that your problem will be solved without any delay.

      Delete
  2. this was vey ideal blog for vehicles. if you need to see more , check this site Latest bikes and cars

    ReplyDelete
  3. To know more about Chief Dr Lucky you can visit his website (https://chiefdrluckyherbaltherapy.wordpress.com/)
     
     A friend that suffered from Herpes and was cure with the help of this great herbal doctor Chief Lucky so i decided to contact him for help in getting rid of my families genital herpes virus 1/2 which i did and all i was told to provide was just some useful information and some materials used in preparation of the natural cure and that i did and now i am the happiest person on earth because i am writing this testimony of mine with joy and happiness in my heart to the whole world to know that natural remedy is real because i am a living testimony of Chief Lucky traditional herbal cure and i want you all to contact Chief Lucky via his email: chiefdrlucky@gmail.com or WhatsApp him +2348132777335 am sure he will help you too.

    ReplyDelete
  4. A very nice blog for this kind of theme, full of every kind of information. If you want to read more on these related topics, check this site up coming cars in india

    ReplyDelete
  5. HERPES 
    God bless Doctor Dr. DADA for helping me cure my herpes disease. Brethren, I have suffered from herpes for a long period of time, i have tried so many remedies, but none seems to work. But I had contact with a herbal doctor who I saw so many people testifying on how they were all cured of their various diseases and viruses by this doctor. So I explained my entire problem to him, and he promised to cure me. So I gave him all the benefit of doubt, and behold he prepared the herbal mixture, and sent it to me in my country. Today, I am proud to say I am herpes free, and my life has been restored to normal. So in case you are out there suffering from herpes and other diseases or viruses, I want to tell you to quickly contact: Dr DADA for your cure. His email is [drdadaspellhome7@gmail.com]  OR Whatsapp  +2349023126215 

    ReplyDelete
  6. I want to use this opportunity to thank Dr Oyagu for the grate work he has done for me and my cousin sister, I was cured from herpes virus through his herbal remedy and my cousin sisters was also cured from Cancer. This is a grate testimony for what Dr Oyagu Has done for me and my entire generation. I’m giving this testimony so that those of you out there can contact him while he keeps saving my relatives. Send him a Dm and get a better health totally. Contact him via WhatsApp +2348101755322 or Email address:oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com you can also reach him on his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome

    ReplyDelete
  7. I always have cold sores outbreaks when on my periods and they were very terrible, when I went for test the doctor said I had herpes virus. I just want to share a brief testimony of how Dr Sikies completely cured me from herpes virus with his natural medicine. It became a burden to me having outbreaks all time and it was so terrible to look upon while on mirror than going out with it so would rather lock up myself indoors all times of outbreak. I stumbled upon a testimony of someone this Herbal doctor has cured on the internet and took the doctor's email:drsikies@gmail.com to contact him. I'm completely whole today free from this virus and horrible outbreaks All thanks to Dr Sikies!!

    Here is his website: https://drsikiesherbalcure.weebly.com

    You can quickly reach me on via mail:monetwilson702@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  8. An extraordinarily charming web journal for this kind of subject, overflowing with each kind of information. If you need to scrutinize more on these associated subjects, you can see us at recently launched cars in india

    ReplyDelete
  9. An extraordinarily charming web journal for this kind of subject, overflowing with each kind of information. If you need to scrutinize more on these associated subjects, you can see us at new cars launching

    ReplyDelete
  10. Greetings Everyone, this is Mr Jim Uber Human Assistance Services

    if you are broke and you need urgent help kindly let us know

    1.We offer ATM cards already loaded with money that you can use to make daily withdraw of 3000$.

    2. We offer loans at a very cheap interest rate of 2%

    3. We also offer job opportunities if you are in need of urgent job.

    4. We help to teach you Bitcoin investments and Forex

    5. We also help individuals to recover back stolen or lost cryptocurrencies.

    6. We help individuals with accommodation problems to get shelter.

    Kindly contact us now if you need any kind of help online.

    our contact email is : jimuberservices@gmail.com and our whatsapp line is +19784003014

    Thanks.

    ReplyDelete
  11. I'm here to testify about what DR. OYAGU did for me. I have been suffering from (GENITAL HERPES VIRUS) disease for the past 2 years and had constant pain and inching, especially in my private part. During the first year, I had faith in God that i would be cured someday. This disease started circulating all over my body and I have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago I came across a testimony of Shayla Bosschart on the internet testifying about a Man called DR. OYAGU on how he cured her from 7 years HSV 2. And she also gave the email address of this man, advise anybody to contact him for help on any kind of diseases that he would be of help, so I emailed him telling him about my (HSV 2) he told me not to worry that I was going to be cured!! Well, I never doubted him I have faith he can cure me too,, DR. OYAGU prepared and sent me Healing Soap, roots and herbs which I took. In the first one week, I started experiencing changes all over me, after two weeks of using his Roots/ Herbs, Oil and Soap, I was totally cured. no more inching , pain on me anymore as DR. OYAGU assured me. After some time I went to my doctor to do another test behold the result came out negative. So friends my advise is if you have such disease or know anyone who suffers from it or any other disease like HPV, HBV, HIV, ALS, HBP, CANCER etc. you can contact DR. OYAGU for help via email} oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome whatsapp him through his mobile} +2348101755322. , Thanks once again DR. OYAGU for making me a happy woman again.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Planning for a trip to Manali this summer? Book Chandigarh to Manali cabs with us at affordable price. We will try to get you at your favored time and get you to the destination safely.

    ReplyDelete
  13. I want to share this wonderful testimony to the Good people all over the world on how I was able to Enlarge my Penis by Dr.OSE I was living a shameful life from my young age, just last month as I was browsing on the internet about Penis size and Enlargement Products, I saw a testimony of a Man called George , testifying of how he was able to get his penis Enlarged by Dr.ose and I decided to also Email Dr.ose for my small penis size and he quickly respond to me and gave me the normal instructions which i did and then he shipped the product to me here in the united state which i received in just 3 working days and today i am very happy because i started seeing positive changes in my penis size in just 7 days of use. Dr.OSE herbal product is the best recommended for you and to whomever suffering from this shame or having any other diseases as well should Contact this great herbal doctor via his Email :oseremenspelltemple@gmail.com and WhatsApp Him on +2348136482342 https://www.facebook.com/Dr-odion-spell-temple-110513923938220/

    ReplyDelete
  14. UNBELIEVABLE QUICK HERPES CURE BY HERBALIST RAZOR. VISIT HERBALIST RAZOR WEBSITE :

    https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome

    Hello!!! I’m indeed very happy for the great help that Dr Razor rendered to me,I was diagnosed with HSV 2 on July 7, 2017 and I have tried all possible means to get cure but all to no avail, until i saw a post in a health forum concerning herbal doctor Dr Razor, who prepares herbal medicine to cure all kind of diseases/Infection including Herpes Simplex virus Type 2, at first i doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try, when i contact this herbal doctor via his email, He assured me of a cure, he prepared a herbal medicine and sent it to me via courier service, when i received this herbal medicine, he gave me instructions on how to use it, I applied it as instructed, i was cured of this deadly virus within 18 days of usage,he told me to go for a medical check up and i went for test, I couldn't believe i was negative and the HERPES VIRUS in my body got cured, I and my family are so happy and grateful to God for using Dr Razor to Liberate me. Reach Out to this great herbal doctor via his email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com Whatsapp or call him on +234 90 6542 0442

    ReplyDelete
  15. DOCTOR RAZOR FAST CURE FOR HERPES SIMPLEX INFECTION.  Best Regards to Doctor Razor and his herbal Exploits..I am so happy that i got cured from herpes virus 1&2 after i have suffered from this virus for over 3 years. I have been using drugs to suppress it,I got introduced to doctor razor by a friend of mine who knew I was herpes positive, she believes in herbs, and I have full doubt on her idea to try out herbal medicine. but after visiting his website : https://herbalistrazorherb.wixsite.com/drrazorherbalhome  . I contacted the doctor and told him what I was passing through, so he promised he was going to get me cured completely. I am so glad that after applying doctor razor herbal remedy for 18 days there is no trace of the virus in my body as confirmed by the results given to me by the medical hospital,where I conducted my test. I am so grateful for Doctor Razor. For those who are in the same situation just like I was, you can reach out to doctor razor on email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com , WhatsApp or Call him on +2349065420442. Please share as received, so multitude can be saved from this virus

    ReplyDelete
  16. GRATITUDE TO HERBALIST RAZOR FOR THE GREAT AND MIRACULOUS WORK HE DOING WITH HIS HERBAL MEDICINE. Herbal treatment is 100% guaranteed for HSV 1&2 cure, the reason why most people are finding it difficult to cure HSV 1&2 is because they believe in medical reports, drugs and medical treatment which is not helpful to cure HSV1&2. Natural roots and herbs are the best remedy which can easily eradicate herpes forever for more information about herpes cure Please write Herbalist Razor for any health challenge email : drrazorherbalhome@gmail.com or WhatsApp +2349065420442

    ReplyDelete
  17. DR OYAGU herbal medicine is a good remedy for herpes simplex virus cure. My name is MIGNON WRIGHT , am from USA,I am here to give my testimony about DR OYAGU who helped me in my life, i want to inform the public how i was cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) by DR OYAGU, i visited different hospital but they gave me list of drugs like Familiar, Zovirax, and Valtrex which is very expensive to treat the symptoms and never cured me. I was browsing through the Internet searching for remedy on HERPES and i saw comment of people talking about how DR OYAGU cured them, when i contacted him he gave me hope and send a Herbal medicine to me that i took and it seriously worked for me, am a free person now without any problem, my HERPES result came out negative, I pray to God to never let me and my family forget you in our life, am now cured permanently, you can also get your self cured my friends if you really need this doctor help, you can reach him on his website ;https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Email: oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or via whatsapp +2348101755322

    ReplyDelete
  18. A phenomenally enchanting web diary for this sort of subject, spilling over with every sort of data. In the event that you need to examine more on these related subjects, you can see us at coming cars

    ReplyDelete
  19. I got Diagnosed with Herpes, I have be dealing with Herpes for the past 4 years. On till I got review online about natural cure people testifies how DR. Ehimare cure them with his herbal treatment. And I order the treatment, after taking it for 21 days I totally got cured with DR. Ehimare treatment. I'm recommending you diagnosis with herpes should get this treatment and be cured of it you can contact his email address via; drehimare3@gmail. com or you can also call or whatsapp +1 (267) 681-1087Dr. Ehimare also cure the following virus and many more... 1} Cancer 2} Diabetes 3} Hepatitis 4} fibroid 5} herpes 6} Lupus

    ReplyDelete

  20. Hello Everyone, i am from Florida USA. I want to share my testimonies to the general
    public on how this great man called Dr OLOKUN who cure my herpes. I have been a HERPES patient for over 9 Months and i have been in pains until i came across this lady when i traveled to Africa for business trip who happer and she told me that there is this great herbal doctor that help her tocure her herpes and she gave me his email address for me to contact and i did as she instructed. The man Dr OLOKUN told me how much to buy the
    herpes herbal medication and how i will get it, which i did. And to my
    greatest surprise that i took the Herpes herbal medicine for just two week as he
    instructed and behold i went for a herpes test, to my greatest surprise for the
    doctor confirmed me to be herpes free and said that i no longer have
    herpes in my system and till now i have never felt any pains nor herpes again, so i
    said i must testify the goodness of this man to the general public. So if
    you are there surfing from this Herpes problems or any deadly disease or
    other disease for i will advice you to contact him on his working
    email: drolokuntemple@gmail.com whatsapp him with thise number +2348132537313

    ReplyDelete
  21. Are you battling with any health related issues or infection is not the end of your life, why not contact a herbal practitioner for cure Dr Oyagu has herbal remedies and permanent solution for all your health related problems. recommend him to you today only because i have also used his herbal medicine and it worked perfectly on my health problem, you can actually save yourself from giving your hard earned money to Scammers if only you can contact Dr Oyagu today for genuine and Permanent cure herbal products . Pls help share this post to save yourself and your love ones. Dr Oyagu is specialize in these areas, Permanent herbal supplements for anxiety and depression, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, Epilepsy, Blood, Cancer, HPV, ALS, herpes etc. Email: oyaguherbalhome@gmail.com or visit his website https://oyaguspellcaster.wixsite.com/oyaguherbalhome Or Cell Whatsapp Number +2348101755322 thank you

    ReplyDelete